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Recollected - Jul 2017

Altman Z-score

The Z-score formula for predicting bankruptcy was published in 1968 by Edward I. Altman, who was, at the time, an Assistant Professor of Finance at New York University. The formula may be used to predict the probability that a firm will go into bankruptcy within two years. Z-scores are used to predict corporate defaults and an easy-to-calculate control measure for the financial distress status of companies in academic studies. The Z-score uses multiple corporate income and balance sheet values to measure the financial health of a company.

The original Z-score formula was as follows:
Z = 1.2X1 + 1.4X2 + 3.3X3 + 0.6X4 + 1.0X5.
X1 = working capital / total assets. Measures liquid assets in relation to the size of the company.
X2 = retained earnings / total assets. Measures profitability that reflects the company's age and earning power.
X3 = earnings before interest and taxes / total assets. Measures operating efficiency apart from tax and leveraging factors. It recognizes operating earnings as being important to long-term viability.
X4 = market value of equity / book value of total liabilities. Adds market dimension that can show up security price fluctuation as a possible red flag.
X5 = sales / total assets. Standard measure for total asset turnover (varies greatly from industry to industry).

Altman found that the ratio profile for the bankrupt group fell at −0.25 avg, and for the non-bankrupt group at +4.48 avg.


DAT – Delivered at Terminal
Definition: This term means that the seller covers all the costs of transport (export fees, carriage, insurance, and destination port charges) and assumes all risk until after the goods are unloaded at the terminal. “Terminal” includes any place, whether covered or not, such as a quay, warehouse, container yard or road, rail or air cargo terminal. The buyer covers the cost of transporting the goods from the terminal or port to final destination and pays the import duty/taxes/customs costs.

Note: With this arrangement, the seller assumes a large portion of the risks and costs of transport. This term applies to any mode of transport.

DAP – Delivered at Place
Definition: This term means that the seller pays all the costs of transportation (export fees, carriage, insurance, and destination port charges) up to and including the delivery of the goods to the final destination. The buyer is responsible to pay only the import duty/taxes/customs costs. The buyer also is responsible to unload the goods from the vehicle at the final destination.

Note: The big difference between DAP and DAT is that with DAP the seller is responsible for the final leg of the journey and the buyer is responsible for the final unloading of the goods. This term applies to any mode of transport.

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid
Definition: This term means that the seller assumes all the risks and costs of transport (export fees, carriage, insurance, and destination port charges, delivery to the final destination) and pays any import customs/duty. The buyer has only to unload the goods at the final destination.


The Asset-Liability Management Committee (ALCO) is responsible for implementation of risk and business policies simultaneously in a consistent manner and decides on the business strategy to achieve these objectives. Its role encompasses the following:

1. Product pricing for deposits and advances
2. Maturity profile and mix of incremental assets and liabilities
3. Articulating interest rate view of the bank
4. Funding policy
5. Transfer pricing
6. Balance sheet management




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